4 October 2013 by Pigmalijonas
You have learned important and fairly complicated things in previous lessons, so we need to do some revision in order to put things together.
When we use verbs (actions), we speak about the objects of these actions too. In Lithuanian, the endings of these objects (nouns) are changed. What these endings are, depends on the verb. Some verbs determine that the noun uses the accusative case ending, some verbs make them use dative, genitive or instrumental endings.
Often nouns can be changed into more than one case, depending on what is being said. Here are some verbs that transform the endings of their nouns into the accusative case:
duoti: Vytautas duoda pieštuką. Vytautas gives a pencil.
imti: Milda ima knygą. Milda takes a book.
gauti: Dovilė gauna kompiuterį. Dovilė gets a computer.
pirkti: Darius perka laikrodį. Darius buys a clock.
Here are some that require the genitive case:
laukti: Laimis laukia Mildos. Laimis is waiting for Milda.
nekęsti: Milda nekenčia Laimio. Milda hates Laimis.
reikėti: Laimiui reikia Mildos. Laimis needs Milda.
Many of these verbs can require the dative case too:
duoti: Vytautas duoda Mildai pieštuką. Vytautas gives a pencil to Milda.
imti: Darius ima Dovilei knygą. Darius takes a book to Dovilė.
gauti: Dalia gauna Dariui laikrodį. Dalia gets a clock for Darius.
pirkti: Dalia perka Dariui stalą. Dalia buys a table for Darius.
reikėti: Mildai reikia Vytauto. Milda needs Vytautas.
patikti: Mildai patinka Vytautas. Milda likes Vytautas.
These are some that require the instrumental case:
tapti: Darius tampa Vytautu. Darius becomes Vytautas.
važiuoti: Laimis važiuoja autobusu. Laimis goes by bus.
Be careful! Cases are a tricky thing, if your native language does not have any. Take these sentences for example:
aš važiuoju autobusu (I am going by bus)
aš važiuoju tėvo autobusu (I am going by father's bus)
The first sentence seems to be easy enough, but be sure you don't get confused by sentences like the second where you have multiple nouns. A common mistake is to make the noun tėvas into the instrumental case too, as is autobusas. But pay attention that the object here is the whole phrase "tėvo autobusas" and not tėvas and autobusas separately.
We suggest that you reread all the material carefully and most importantly: do not rush yourself! These lessons are not intended to be finished in one hour!