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 Post subject: TO BE x 4
PostPosted: 2012 04 17, 13:52 

Joined: 2012 04 17, 13:05
Posts: 8
Location: berlynas
i read an incredibly interesting article about lithuanian linguistics
(http://www.lituanus.org/1984_3/84_3_05.htm)
it said lithuanian has 4 different present tense forms for būti...

esmi, esi, esti, esame, esate, esti

esu, esi, yra, esame, esate, yra

būnu, būni, būna, būname, būnate, būva

būvu, būvi, būva, būvame, būvate, būva


it doesn't mention dual forms, but whatever.
my book only teaches the second one...
does anyone know the nuances between the four? are some just reserved for literature/poetry etc? or maybe just used in some dialects perhaps?
i'd be very interested to hear about it :D

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PostPosted: 2012 04 19, 04:39 
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Joined: 2006 09 08, 19:28
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Location: La Plata, Argentinos Respublika
Oh, well... the "yra" group is the standard conjugation. The group "būna" conveyes the idea of an state which is repeated or constant within certain specific timespan. I do not remember what is the difference in meaning of the other two, but I believe they are rarely used.

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PostPosted: 2012 04 19, 11:53 

Joined: 2012 04 17, 13:05
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thanks!
could you give an example sentence using the būna form just for clarity??

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PostPosted: 2012 04 19, 16:53 
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Žiemą būna šalta

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PostPosted: 2012 04 20, 00:54 

Joined: 2012 04 17, 13:05
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ačiū :)

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PostPosted: 2012 09 08, 10:06 
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laiminga_varle wrote:
thanks!
could you give an example sentence using the būna form just for clarity??

in LITUANUS, LITHUANIAN QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ARTS AND SCIENCES
Volume 30, No.3 - Fall 1984, Antanas Klimas wrote:
V. Lithuanian has developed four different present tense conjugational patterns of the verb būti 'to be:'

(aš) esmi esu būnu būvu 'I am'
(tu) esi esi būni būvi 'thou art'
(jis) esti yra būna būva 'he is'
(mes) esame esame būname būvame 'we are'
(jūs) esate esate būnate būvate 'you are (pl)'
(jie) esti yra būna būva 'they are'
The first two patterns are really based on the ancient Indo-European root *es- 'to be,' and the last two are based on another Indo-European root *bheu-/*bhou-/*bhu-which also meant 'to be.' In the course of many centuries, even millennia, certain subtle semantic shifts have developed between these forms, and the normative, or school grammars of Lithuanian usually present only the second pattern, but all four are still used in various dialects and regions of Lithuanian. Although the form esm; 'I am' is at least 5,000 years old, it is exactly the same as in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European. But the most mysterious form in the whole system is yra 'is/are.' Nobody can explain its origin, and some linguists surmise that yra is not even a verbal form as we understand it today, but a very ancient petrified noun, or, rather, an apellative word from those primordial times when no distinction was "felt" between what we today understand as a "noun" and a "verb."27

VI. Lithuanian has three different forms of the infinitive: in -ti, -te, and -tų. For examples: eiti, eite, eitų 'to go.' Historically (or diachronically) the first form (eiti) is an old dative case since most of the infinitives in various Indo-European languages were really abstract nouns. The second form (eite) was, possibly, an old vocative, although its origin is not as clear as that of the first one in -ti. The third form (eitų) is really an old supinum, and its origin is connected with the desiderative, or subjunctive mood.28 Again, I hasten to add, that in school/prescriptive/normative grammars of Lithuanian, only the first form in -ti is given. All these three types of the infinitive have developed very special usages, but this is not the place to talk about that.
and in the Lithuanian Lessons at Baltic Online at the University of Texas

The athematic paradigm was as follows:

'be' 'remain' 'give' 'save'
1st sg esmì liekmì dúomi gélbmi
2nd sg esì lieksì dúosi gélbsi
3rd sg ẽst(i) liẽkt(i) dúost(i) gélbt(i)

1st pl esmè liekmè dúome gélbme
2nd pl estè liektè dúoste gélbte
3rd pl ẽsti liẽkt(i) dúost(i) gélbt(i)

1st dual esvà liekvà dúova gélbva
2nd dual està liektà dúosta gélbta


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